container gardening

Container gardening is a fantastic way to bring the joys of gardening to small spaces, such as balconies, patios or even windowsills. Whether you’re an urban dweller or simply looking to enhance your outdoor space, container gardening offers a versatile and accessible solution. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll explore everything you need to know to start and maintain a flourishing container garden, from selecting the right plants to providing proper care.

Getting Started With Container Gardening

To embark on your container gardening journey, first follow these simple steps:

1. Find the ideal location: Observe your space and identify spots that receive adequate sunlight, usually 6–8 hours per day. Many plants thrive in full sunlight, but some can tolerate partial shade.

2. Invest in quality potting mix: Purchase a well-draining potting mix to provide the necessary nutrients for your plants. Avoid using garden soil alone, as it may compact and hinder drainage.

3. Choose the right containers: Opt for containers made of durable materials such as plastic, ceramic or wood. Ensure they have proper drainage holes to prevent waterlogging and allow excess water to escape.

4. Select the right plants: Use only plants suitable for container gardening to ensure optimal growth, reduce the risk of overcrowding and maximize the aesthetic appeal of your container garden. See the following list for ideas.

    Best Vegetables, Fruits, Flowers and Herbs for Container Gardens


    Beans, carrots, lettuce, peppers, radishes, spinach and tomatoes are excellent vegetable choices for container gardening.

    • Beans: Bush bean varieties such as “Contender” and “Provider" are ideal for container gardening. Provide support with stakes or trellises as they grow.
    • Carrots and radishes: Both radishes and carrots can be grown in containers. Choose shorter varieties such asNantes” carrots and “Cherry Belle” radishes for better results.
    • Lettuce and spinach: Leafy greens such as lettuce and spinach thrive in containers. Select loose-leaf varieties such as Salad Bowl” lettuce and “Bloomsdale” spinach for continuous harvest.
    • Peppers: Opt for dwarf varieties such as “Cayenne Sweet” or “Gypsy.” These plants produce vibrant fruits and require minimal space.
    • Tomatoes: Choose compact or determinate varieties such as “Celebrity,” “Patio Princess” or “Tiny Tim.” Stake or cage them for support as they grow.


      Blueberries, raspberries, strawberries and dwarf fruit trees, such as citrus or fig, thrive in containers. Choose varieties suited for smaller spaces and consider pollination requirements. 

      • Blueberries: Choose dwarf blueberry varieties such asSunshine Blue” or “Top Hat.” These plants are self-pollinating and well-suited for containers.
      • Raspberries: Look for compact raspberry varieties such as “Raspberry Shortcake” or “Ruby Beauty.” These plants produce delicious berries and don’t require staking.
      • Strawberries: Select ever-bearing or day-neutral varieties such as “Alpine,” “Quinault” or “Seascape.” Strawberries are perfect for hanging baskets or stacked containers.
      • Dwarf fruit trees: Consider dwarf citrus trees such as “Calamondin,” “Dwarf Cavendish” banana or Meyer” lemon. These trees provide fresh fruits in smaller spaces.


        Impatiens, marigolds, pansies, petunias and zinnias are popular flowers for container gardens. Choose varieties that suit your aesthetic preferences and the level of sunlight available.

        • Impatiens: Impatiens thrive in shady spots and provide an array of colorful blooms. Look for varieties such as “Busy Lizzie” or “New Guinea.”
        • Marigolds: These vibrant annual flowers deter pests and attract pollinators. Varieties such as “African Marigold” or “French Marigold” add color to container gardens.
        • Pansies: Pansies come in a variety of colors and bloom in cool seasons. They are ideal for adding charm to container gardens.
        • Petunias: Choose trailing petunias such as “Wave Petunias,” or petunia-type flowers such as “Calibrachoa” or “Surfinia” for beautiful cascades of blooms.
        • Zinnias: Zinnias offer vibrant and long-lasting blooms. Dwarf varieties such as “Profusion” or “Thumbelina” are perfect for containers.


          Basil, mint, parsley, rosemary and thyme are just a few herbs that flourish in containers. Their fragrant leaves and compact growth make them ideal for container gardening.

          • Basil: Choose compact basil varieties such as “Bush Basil” or “Spicy Globe.” These plants are flavorful and perfect for container gardening.
          • Mint: Grow mint in containers to prevent its invasive spread. Peppermint, spearmint and chocolate mint are popular choices.
          • Parsley: Curly or flat-leaf parsley varieties such as “Italian Flat-Leaf” or “Moss Curled” are excellent options for container gardens.
          • Rosemary: Opt for dwarf or trailing rosemary varieties such as “Blue Spires” or “Prostratus.” They add a delightful fragrance to your container garden.
          • Thyme: Creeping thyme varieties such as “Elfin” or “Woolly Thyme” are ideal for cascading over the edges of containers.

            Selecting The Perfect Containers

            By carefully selecting the appropriate containers and considering the needs of your plants, you’ll create an optimal growing environment for your container garden.

            Size matters: Consider the space available and the plant’s mature size when selecting containers. Larger plants require more space for root growth. For example, tomatoes and peppers need containers at least 12–18 inches deep, while herbs can thrive in smaller pots.

            Material selection: Plastic containers are lightweight and affordable, making them easy to move and providing good insulation for the roots. Ceramic or clay pots are aesthetically pleasing and offer better insulation, but they can be heavier and may require more frequent watering. Wooden containers, such as cedar or redwood, are durable and provide natural insulation, but might require liners to prevent rot.

            Vertical gardening solutions: Make the most of your vertical space by using hanging baskets, wall-mounted planters or tiered plant stands. These options allow you to grow trailing plants such as ivy, strawberries or vine vegetables such as cucumbers, saving valuable floor space.

            Drainage is key: Ensure that the containers you choose have drainage holes at the bottom to prevent waterlogging. If your chosen container doesn’t have drainage holes, you can drill them yourself or place a layer of gravel or broken pottery pieces at the bottom to create a drainage layer.

            Self-watering containers: Consider using self-watering containers, which have built-in reservoirs that provide a steady supply of water to the plants. These containers are particularly beneficial if you have a busy schedule or live in a hot climate.

            Container aesthetics: Choose containers that complement your overall garden aesthetic. Mix and match different container sizes, shapes and colors to create an appealing visual impact. Remember that lighter-colored containers may reflect sunlight and help keep the roots cooler in hot weather.

            Best Containers By Plant Type

            By considering the specific container types recommended for each plant category, you can ensure that your container garden provides the optimal growing conditions for your chosen plants.


            • Beans: Utilize trellises or vertical containers such as tall planter boxes or tower planters to support climbing bean varieties.
            • Carrots and radishes: Choose cylindrical or deep containers such as root pouches or tall plastic containers to accommodate root length.
            • Lettuce and spinach: Use shallow containers such as window boxes, shallow plastic trays or herb planters to grow these leafy greens.
            • Peppers: Opt for medium-sized containers, around 3–5 gallons, such as nursery pots or plastic containers with drainage holes.
            • Tomatoes: Grow tomatoes in sturdy, deep containers such as fabric grow bags, 5-gallon buckets or large plastic or ceramic pots.


              • Blueberries: Opt for larger containers, around 10–15 gallons, such as half-barrels or whiskey barrels, as blueberries have extensive root systems.
              • Raspberries: Select wider containers such as large nursery pots or rectangular planters to provide enough space for the spreading raspberry canes.
              • Strawberries: Hanging baskets, strawberry pots or stacked containers with pockets or slots for planting are ideal for growing strawberries.
              • Dwarf fruit trees: Use large containers, around 15–20 gallons, such as whiskey barrels or half wine barrels, to accommodate the root systems of dwarf fruit trees.


                • Impatiens: Utilize hanging baskets, window boxes or colorful plastic containers to display the abundant blooms of impatiens.
                • Marigolds: Choose decorative ceramic pots, hanging baskets or window boxes to showcase the vibrant colors of marigold flowers.
                • Pansies: Use shallow and wide containers such as shallow clay bowls or decorative planters to showcase the colorful pansy blooms.
                • Petunias: Hanging baskets, window boxes or tall cascading planters work well for trailing petunias, allowing their blooms to drape beautifully.
                • Zinnias: Select medium-sized containers such as terracotta pots, plastic planters or decorative metal containers to grow zinnias.


                  • Basil: Grow basil in small to medium-sized containers such as clay pots, herb planters or decorative ceramic containers.
                  • Mint: Plant mint in separate containers to prevent its invasive nature. Choose deep plastic or ceramic pots to accommodate root growth.
                  • Parsley: Select deeper containers such as plastic or ceramic pots, around 6–8 inches deep, to allow parsley roots to develop fully.
                  • Rosemary: Choose medium-sized pots or deep planters, preferably made of terracotta or clay, to provide good drainage for rosemary.
                  • Thyme: Use shallow and wide containers such as low-profile clay pots or shallow wooden boxes to accommodate the trailing nature of thyme.

                    Planting Your Container Garden

                    1. Preparing the containers: Fill the containers with potting mix, leaving sufficient space for the plant’s root system. Gently tap the container to settle the soil, ensuring there are no air pockets.

                    2. Planting techniques: Carefully remove the plant from its nursery pot, gently tease the roots and place the plant in the container. Add more potting mix around the plant, leaving about an inch of space from the rim to prevent overflow while watering.

                    Watering and Maintenance Tips

                    1. Watering: Regular watering is crucial for container plants. Check the soil moisture by inserting your finger about an inch deep; if it feels dry, water the plant thoroughly until it drains from the bottom. Avoid overwatering, as it can lead to root rot. (Swan offers several great watering accessories for container gardens. You can find them on our website here:

                    2. Fertilizing: Container plants benefit from regular feeding. Use a balanced, water-soluble fertilizer once every two weeks or follow the recommended dosage instructions on the fertilizer packaging. This will provide your plants with essential nutrients for healthy growth. Remember, plants grown in containers must adapt to limited root space and rely solely on the nutrients and moisture provided within the container to survive.

                    3. Pruning and deadheading: Trim off any dead or yellowing leaves to promote airflow and prevent the spread of disease. Deadhead flowers by removing spent blooms to encourage continuous blooming.

                    4. Pest and disease control: Monitor your plants regularly for signs of pests or diseases. Use organic pest control methods or consult with your local garden center for appropriate treatments.

                    5. Seasonal care: Adjust your gardening routine based on the seasons. In colder climates, protect your plants from frost by moving them indoors or using frost covers. In hot climates, provide shade or relocate containers to cooler areas during scorching summers.

                    Container gardening opens up a world of possibilities, allowing you to cultivate a wide variety of vegetables, fruits, flowers and herbs in limited spaces. Select plants that are well-suited for containers, choose containers with proper drainage and consider the materials, size and aesthetics of the containers you use. With these tips in mind, you’ll be well on your way to establishing a thriving container garden that brings joy, beauty and delicious harvests right to your doorstep. Happy gardening!

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